Though, the Nineties or the late 20th century is a period of development in social behavior, technical fields, and improved employment opportunities—it also appeared as a period of various issues, such as ethnic tensions, religion and caste based politics, communal riots (genocide), terrorist attacks, natural disasters, recession. However, past few decades have been appealing, comfortable and brightest; on the other hand, have been a dreariest one too.
Urban drift—physical growth of urban areas is the significant rationalized advancement as a result of rural migration and suburban concentration, which caused the arrival of “Urban Millennium”. Where, there are improvements in many fields, such as transportation, job opportunities, education, and software areas (as user-friendly web browsers made web surfing easier, MS Windows became a widespread operating system. Many improved and advanced technologies came in and made day-to-day life a lot easier later); there are negative aspects of urbanization too, such as increased daily life costs, negative social aspects, stress, pollution, land grabs, conflicts and degradation of farmland.
Where common ancestries, cherished relationships, and communal behavior characterizes the rural culture, the urban culture is known as distant lineages, unfamiliar relationships and competitive behavior. Rural inhabitants started migrating to the city to seek fortunes and social agility, as cities are known as a centralized place for money, services and wealth. City life permits individuals and families to take advantage of the opportunities for jobs, education, housing and transportation.
The picture of the Indian society in this era is—men are still the breadwinners (as they have always been since last so many decades), though women have also started sharing the burden and are trying to reduce the pressure of survival in the modern life while keeping an eye on her family that they are getting all the essentials. However, that is happening only in urban areas. In rural areas, situation is same old, same old. This era has coined the concept of a Supermom, who can handle each-and-every work related to her household, family and profession.
This era has showed a complex mixing of old and new traditions, customs and viewpoints. It has been modern and conservative at the same time. People are concern of their social order and status comparative to other people, be it family, friends or outsiders. However, at the same time they are friendly and accommodating.
There is a steep inconsistency and contradiction in urban and rural civilization. Things are changing rapidly and vogue of the era is—women empowerment. However, over a past few decades, the status of the women has been changed to a great extent, yet they are treated as neglected citizens in many parts of India. Where in urban areas women are approaching for higher educations and great career opportunities, in rural areas they are still left out from the basic requirement of education and nutritious food. In suburbs, people were educating their girls only to a certain extent, as it was considered that even after higher education they don’t have to be a breadwinner and have only to look after their families, and give birth to children. Thus, high education of girls is considered as wastage of time and money. Moreover, it’s sad to admit that this concept is still accepted in many regions of India. In various regions, different levels of education are criteria of groom’s family, so, girls are allowed to study till that level only. Well-settled men want well-educated brides to make their status and stature high by showing off that their wife is a highly educated person. Doesn’t matter, if she is able to utilize her skills or not… doesn’t matter at all if she wants to make a career after her studies or not.
This era has seen extravagantly inconsistent society. Hope that new generation will understand the conflict and the upcoming eras will be auspicious and propitious.